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41.0 Chronological Table

To conclude this Outline, we give here a Table of Leading Events from the year 800 B.C. to 1920 A.D. Following that we give five time diagrams covering the period from 1000 B.C. onward, which present the trend of events in a graphic form.

It is well that the reader should keep in mind an idea of the true proportions of historical to geological time. The scale of the five diagrams at the end is such that by it the time diagram on page 142 would be about 8 1/2 times as long, that is to say about 4 feet; that on page 47 showing the interval since the Eoliths, 555 feet, and that on page 11 representing the whole of geological time would be somewhere between 12 and, at the longest and most probable estimate, 260 miles! Let the reader therefore take one of these chronological tables we give, and imagine it extended upon a long strip of paper to a distance of 55 feet. He would have to get up and walk about that distance to note the date of the painting of the Altamira caves, and he would have to go ten times that distance by the side of the same narrow strip to reach the earlier Neanderthalers. A mile or so from home, but probably much further away, the strip might be recording the last of the dinosaurs. And this on a scale which represents the time from Columbus to ourselves by three inches of space!

Chronology only begins to be precise enough to specify the exact year of any event after the establishment of the eras of the First Olympiad and the building of Rome.

About the year 1000 B.C. the Aryan peoples were establishing themselves in the peninsulas of Spain, Italy, and the Balkans, and they were established in North India. Cnossos was already destroyed, and the spacious times of Egypt, of Thotmes III, Amenophis III, and Rameses II were three or four centuries away. Weak monarchs of the, XXIst Dynasty were ruling in the Nile Valley. Israel was united under her early kings; Saul or David or possibly even Solomon may have been reigning. Sargon I (2750 B.C. of the Akkadian Sumerian Empire was a remote memory in Babylonian history, more remote than is Constantine the Great from the world of the present day. Hammurabi had been dead, a thousand years. The Assyrians were already dominating the less military Babylonians. In 1100 B.C. Tiglath Pileser I had taken Babylon. But there was no permanent conquest; Assyria and Babylonia were still separate empires. In China the new Chow dynasty was flourishing. Stonehenge in England was already a thousand years old.

The next two centuries saw a renascence of Egypt under the XXII Dynasty, the splitting up of the brief little Hebrew kindgom of Solomon, the spreading of the Greeks in the Balkans, South Italy and Asia Minor, and the days of Etruscan predominance in Central Italy. We may begin our list of ascertainable dates with

Ancient times
  1. The building of Carthage.
  1. The Ethiopian conquest of Egypt (founding the XXVth Dynasty).
  1. First Olympiad.
  1. Rome built.
  1. Tiglath Pileser III conquered Babylonia and founded the New Assyrian Empire.
  1. Menahem, king of Israel, bought off Tiglath Pileser III.
  1. Greeks settling in Sicily.
  1. Sargon II armed the Assyrians with iron weapons.
  1. He deported the Israelites.
  1. Sennacherib.
  1. His army destroyed by a pestilence on its way to Egypt.
  1. Esarhaddon took Thebes in Egypt (overthrowing the Ethiopian XXVth Dynasty).
  1. Sardanapalus.
  1. Psammetiehus I restored the freedom of Egypt and founded the XXVIth Dynasty (to 610). He was assisted against Assyria by Lydian troops sent by Gyges.
  1. Necho of Egypt defeated Josiah, king of Judah, at the Battle of Megiddo.
  1. Capture of Nineveh by the Chaldeans And Medes. Foundation of the Chaldean Empire.
  1. Necho pushed to the Euphrates and was overthrown by Nebuchadnezzar II. Josiah fell with him.
  1. Nebuchadnezzar carried off the Jews to Babylon. Many fled to Egypt and settled there.
  1. Cyrus the Persian succeeded Cyaxares the Mede. Cyrus conquered Croesus. Buddha lived about this time. So also did Confucius and Lao Tse.
  1. Cyrus took Babylon and founded the Persian Empire.
  1. Peisistratus died.
  1. Cambyses conquered Egypt.
  1. Darius I, the son of Hystaspes, ruled from the Hellespont to the Indus. His expedition to Scythia.
  1. Battle of Marathon.
  1. Herodotus born. Aeschylus won his first prize for tragedy.
  1. Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis.
  1. The Battles of Plataea and Mycale completed the repulse of Persia.
  1. Etruscan fleet destroyed by the Sicilian Greeks.
  1. Voyage of Hanno.
  1. Pericles.
  1. Xerxes murdered.
  1. Herodotus recited his History in Athens.
  1. Peloponnesian War began (to 404).
  1. Pericles died. Herodotus died.
  1. Aristophanes began his career. Plato born. He lived to 347.
  1. Retreat of the Ten Thousand.
  1. Brennus sacked Rome.
  1. Camillus built the Temple of Concord.
  1. Philip became king of Macedonia.
  1. Battle of Chaeronia.
  1. Macedonian troops crossed into Asia, Philip murdered.
  1. Battle of the Granicus.
  1. Battle of Issus.
  1. Alexander in Egypt.
  1. Battle of Arbela.
  1. Darius III killed.
  1. Death of Alexander the Great.
  1. Rise of Chandragupta in the Punjab.  The Romans completely beaten by the Samnites at the battle of the Caudine Forks.
  1. Chandragupta repulsed Seleucus.
  1. Ptolemy Soter died.
  1. Pyrrhus invaded Italy.
  1. Battle of Heraclea.
  1. Battle of Ausculum.
  1. Gauls’ raid into Asia Minor and settlement in Galatia.
  1. Pyrrhus left Italy.
  1. First Punic War. (Asoka began to reign in Beharto 227.) First gladiatorial games in Rome.
  1. Battle of Mylae
  1. Battle of Ecnomus.
  1. Shi Hwang-ti became king of Ch’in.
  1. Battle of Aegatian Isles.
  1. End of First Punic War.
  1. Battle of Telamon. Roman armies in Illyria.
  1. Shi Hwang-ti became emperor of China. [Note that the date given to Shi Hwang-ti in the diagram on p. 142 is incorrect.]
  1. Second Punic War.
  1. Battle of Cannae.
  1. Great Wall of China begun.
  1. Death of Shi Hwang-ti.
  1. Battle of Zama.
  1. End of Second Punic War.
Rome at war with Macedonia.
  1. War with the Seleucids.
  1. Battle of Magnesia.
  1. Third Punic War. (The Yueh-Chi came into Western Turkestan.)
  1. Carthage destroyed. Corinth destroyed.
  1. Attalus bequeathed Pergamum to Rome. Tiberius Gracchus killed.
  1. Caius, Gracchus, killed.
  1. War with Jugurtha.
  1. War with Jugurtha ended.
  1. Marius drove back Germans.
  1. Triumph of Marius. (Wu-ti conquering the Tarim valley.)
  1. Social war.
  1. All Italians became Roman citizens.
  1. Death of Marius.
  1. Death of Sulla.
  1. The revolt of the slaves under Spartacus.
  1. Defeat and end of Spartacus.
  1. Pompey led Roman troops to the Caspian and Euphrates. He encountered the Alani.
  1. Mithridates of Pontus died.
  1. Crassus killed at Carrhae. Mongolian elements with Parthians.
  1. Julius Caesar defeated Pompey at Pharsalos.
  1. Julius Caesar assassinated.
  1. Battle of Actium.
  1. Augustus Caesar princeps (until 14 A.D.).
  1. True date of birth of Jesus of Nazareth.
Christian Era began.
  1. Province of Moesia established.
  1. Province of Pannonia established. Imperial boundary carried to the Danube.
  1. Augustus died. Tiberius emperor.
  1. Jesus of Nazareth crucified.
  1. Caligula succeeded Tiberius.
  1. Claudius (the first emperor of the legions) made emperor by pretorian guard after murder of Caligula.
  1. Nero succeeded Claudius.
  1. Boadicea massacred Roman garrison in Britain.
  1. Suicide of Nero. (Galba, Otho, Vitellus, emperors in succession.)
  2. Vespasian began the so-called Flavian dynasty.
  1. Titus succeeded Vespasian.
  1. Domitian.
  1. North Britain annexed.
  1. Nerva began the so-called dynasty of the Antonines.
  1. Trajan succeeded Nerva.
  1. Pan Chau on the Caspian Sea. (Indo-Scythians invading North India.)
  1. Hadrian succeeded Trajan. Roman Empire at its greatest
  1. Antoninus Pius succeeded Hadrian. (The Indo-Scythians at this time were destroying the last traces of Hellenic rule in India.)
  1. [About this time Kanishka reigned in India, Kashgar, Yarkand, and Kotan.]
  1. Marcus Aurelius succeeded Antoninus Pius.
  1. Great plague began, and lasted to the death of M. Aurelius (180). This also devastated all Asia.
  1. Death of Marcus Aurelius. (Nearly a century of war and disorder began in the Roman Empire.)
  1. End of the Han dynasty. Beginning of four hundred years of division in China.
  1. Ardashir I (first Sassanid shah) put an end to Arsacid line in Persia.
  1. Mani began his teaching.
  1. Goths crossed Danube in a great raid.
  1. Great victory of Goths. Decius killed.
  1. Sapor I, the second Sassanid shah, took Antioch, captured the Emperor Valerian, and was cut up on his return from Asia Minor by Odenathus of Palmyra.
  1. The Emperor Claudius defeated the Goths at Nish.
  1. Aurelian became emperor.
  1. Zenobia carried captive to Rome. End of the brief glories of Palmyra.
  1. Probus succeeded Aurelian.
  2. Goths in Pontus. The Emperor Probus forced back Franks and Alemanni.
  3. Mani crucified in Persia.
  1. Diocletian became emperor.
  1. Diocletian persecuted the Christians.
  1. Galerius abandoned the persecution of the Christians.
  2. Constantine the Great became emperor.
  3. Constantine presided over a Christian Council at Arles.
  1. Fresh Gothic raids driven back.
  1. Constantine presided over the Council of Nicaea.
  1. Vandals driven by Goths obtained leave to settle in Pannonia.
  1. Constantine baptized on his death-bed.
  1. St. Augustine born.
Julian the Apostate attempted to substitute Mithraism for Christianity.
  1. Theodosius the Great (a Spaniard) emperor.
  1. The statute of Serapis at Alexandria broken up.
  1. Theodosius the Great emperor of east and west.
  1. Theodosius the Great died. Honorius and Arcadius redivided the empire with Stilicho and Alaric as their masters and protectors.
  1. The Visigoths under Alaric captured Rome.
  1. Vandals settling in south of Spain. Huns in Pannonia, Goths in Dalmatia. Visigoths and Suevi in Portugal and North Spain. English invading Britain.
  1. Vandals under Genseric invaded Africa.
  1. Vandals took Carthage.
  1. Priscus visited Attila.
  1. Attila raided Gaul and was defeated by Franks, Alemanni, and Romans at Troyes.
  1. Death of Attila.
  1. Vandals sacked Rome.
  1. Ephthalites raid into India.
  1. Odoacer, king of a medley of Teutonic tribes, informed Constantinople that there was no emperor in the West. End of the Western Empire.
  1. St. Benedict born.
  2. Clovis in France. The Merovingians.
  1. Nestorian church broke away from the Orthodox Christian church.
  1. Theodoric, the Ostrogoth, conquered Italy and became King of Italy, but was nominally subject to Constantinople. (Gothic kings in Italy. Goths settled on special confiscated lands as a garrison.)
  1. Justinian emperor.
  2. Mihiragula, the (Ephthalite) Attila of India, overthrown.
  3. Justinian closed the schools at Athens, which had flourished nearly a thousand years. Belisarius (Justinian’s general) took Naples.
  1. Chosroes I began to reign.
  1. Great plague in Constantinople.
  1. St. Benedict died.
  1. Goths expelled from Italy by Justinian. Cassiodorus founded his monastery.
  1. Justinian died. The Lombards conquered most of North Italy (leaving Ravenna and Rome Byzantine). The Turks broke up the Ephthalites in Western Turkestan.
  1. Muhammad born.
  1. Chosroes I died. (The Lombards dominant in Italy.)
  1. Plague raged in Rome. (Gregory the Great-Gregory I-and the vision of St. Angelo.) Chosroes II began to reign.
  1. Heraclius began to reign.
  1. Chosroes II held Egypt, Jerusalem, Damascus, and had armies on Hellespont. Tang dynasty began in China.
  1. The Hegira.
  2. Battle of Badr.
  1. Great Persian defeat at Nineveh by Heraclius. The Meccan Allies besieged Medina. Tai Tsung became Emperor of China.
  2. Kavadh II murdered and succeeded his father, Chosroes II. Muhammad wrote letters to all the rulers of the earth.
  3. Yuan Chwang started for India. Muhammad entered Mecca.
  1. Muhammad died. Abu Bekr Caliph.
  1. Battle of the Yarmuk. Moslems took Syria. Omar second Caliph.
  2. Tai Tsung received Nestorian missionaries.
  1. Battle of Kadessia.
  2. Jerusalem surrendered to Omar.
  1. Heraclius died.
  2. Othman third Caliph.
  1. Yuan Chwang returned to Singan.
  1. Defeat of the Byzantine fleet by the Moslems.
  2. Othman murdered at Medina
  1. Ali murdered.
  2. Moawiya Caliph. (First of the Omayyad, caliphs.)
  1. The Caliph Moawiya attacked Constantinople by sea. Theodore of Tarsus became Archbishop of Canterbury.
  1. Last of the sea attacks by Moawiya on Constantinople.
  1. Pepin of Hersthal, mayor of the palace, reunited Austrasia and Neustria.
  1. Moslem army invaded Spain from Africa.
  1. Charles Martel, mayor of the palace.
  2. The domains of the Caliph Walid I extended from the Pyrenees to China.
Suleiman, son and successor of Walid, failed to take Constantinople. The Omayyad line passed its climax.
  1. Charles Martel defeated the Moslems near Poitiers.
  1. Death of the Venerable Bede.
  1. Walid II Caliph-the unbelieving Caliph.
  1. Overthrow of the Omayyads. Abdul Abbas, the first Abbasid Caliph. Spain remained Omayyad. Beginning of the break-up of the Arab Empire.
  1. Pepin crowned King of the French.
  1. Martyrdom of St. Boniface.
  1. Pepin died.
  1. Charlemagne sole king.
  1. Charlemagne conquered Lombardy.
  1. Charlemagne in Dalmatia.
  1. Haroun-al-Raschid Abbasid Caliph in Bagdad (to 809).
  1. Leo III became Pope (to 816).
  1. Leo crowned Charlemagne Emperor of the West.
  1. Egbert, formerly an English refugee at the court of Charlemagne, established himself as King of Wessex.
  1. Krum of Bulgaria defeated and killed the Emperor Nicephorus.
  1. Charlemagne died, Louis the Pious succeeds him.
  1. Egbert became first King of England.
  1. Louis the Pious died, and the Carlovingian Empire went to pieces. Until 962 there was no regular succession of Holy Roman Emperors, though the title appeared intermittently.
  1. About this time Rurik (a Northman) became ruler of Novgorod and Kieff.
  1. Boris first Christian King of Bulgaria (to 884).
  1. The fleet of the Russians (Northmen) threatened Constantinople.
  1. The Treaty of Alfred of England and Guthrum the Dane, establishing the Danes in the Danelaw.
  1. Russian (Northmen) fleet off Constantinople.
  1. Rolf the Ganger established himself in Normandy.
  1. Henry the Fowler elected King of Germany.
  1. Marozia imprisoned Pope John X.
  1. John XI Pope (to 936).
  1. Otto I became King of Germany in succession to his father, Henry the Fowler.
  1. Russian fleet again threatened Constantinople.
  1. John XII Pope.
  1. Northern Sung Dynasty began in China.
  1. Otto I, King of Germany, crowned Emperor (first Saxon Emperor) by John XII.
  2. Otto deposed John XII.
  1. Separate Fatimite Caliphate set up in Egypt.
  1. Otto II.
  1. Otto III.
  1. Hugh Capet became King of France. End of the Carlovingian line of French kings.
  1. Canute became King of England, Denmark, and Norway.
  1. Avicenna of Bokhara, the Prince of Physicians, died.
  1. Russian fleet threatened Constantinople.
  1. Conquest of England by William, Duke of Normandy.
  1. Revival of Islam under the Seljuk Turks. Battle of Melasgird.
  1. Hildebrand became Pope (Gregory VII) to 1085.
  1. Robert Guiscard captured Durazzo.
  1. Robert Guiscard sacked Rome.
Urban II Pope.
  1. Pestilence.
  2. Urban II at Clermont summoned the First Crusade.
  3. Massacre of the People’s Crusade.
  1. Godfrey of Bouillon captured Jerusalem. Paschal II Pope (to 1118).
  1. Kin Empire flourished. The Sung capital shifted from Nanking to Hang Chau.
  1. The Second Crusade. Foundation of the Christian Kingdom of Portugal.
  1. Saladin Sultan of Egypt.
  1. Frederick Barbarossa acknowledged supremacy of the Pope (Alexander III) at Venice.
  1. Saladin captured Jerusalem.
  1. The Third Crusade.
  1. Averroes, of Cordoba, the Arab philosopher, died. Innocent III Pope (to 1216). Frederick 11 (aged four), King of Sicily, became his ward.
  1. The Fourth Crusade attacked the Eastern Empire.
  1. Capture of Constantinople by the Latins.
  1. Kutub founded Moslem state at Delhi.
  1. The Children’s Crusade.
  1. Jengis Khan took Poking.
  2. Magna Carta signed.
  3. Honorius III Pope.
  1. Jengis Khan invaded Kharismia.
  1. Failure and return of the Fifth Crusade. St. Dominic died (the Dominicans).
  1. St. Francis of Assisi died. (The Franciscans.)
  2. Jengis Khan died, Khan from the Caspian to the Pacific, and was succeeded by Ogdai Khan. Gregory IX Pope.
  3. Frederick II embarked upon the Sixth Crusade, and acquired Jerusalem.
  1. Mongols completed conquest of the Kin Empire with the help of the Sung Empire.
  1. Frederick II excommunicated for the second time.
  2. Mongols destroyed Kieff. Russia tributary to the Mongols.
  3. Mongol victory at Liegnitz in Silesia.
  1. The Egyptian Sultan recaptured Jerusalem. This led to the Seventh Crusade.
  2. Frederick II re-excommunicated. The men of Schwyz burnt the castle of New Habsburg.
  1. St. Louis of France ransomed. Frederick II, the, last Hohenstaufen Emperor, died. German interregnum until 1273.
Mangu Khan became Great Khan. Kublai Khan governor of China.
  1. Hulagu Khan took and destroyed Bagdad.
  1. Kublai Khan became Great Khan. Ketboga defeated in Palestine.
  2. The Greeks recaptured Constantinople from the Latins.
  1. Kublai Khan sent a message of inquiry to the Pope by the older Polos.
  1. Marco Polo started upon his travels.
  1. Rudolf of Habsburg elected Emperor. The Swiss formed their Everlasting League.
  1. Kublai Khan founded the Yuan Dynasty in China.
  1. Death of Kublai Khan.
  2. Roger Bacon, the prophet of experimental science, died.
  3. Boniface VIII Pope (to 1303).
  4. Marco Polo returned to Venice.
  1. Death of Pope Boniface VIII after the outrage of Anagni by Guillaume de Nogaret.
  1. Clement V Pope. The papal court set up at Avignon.
  1. Duna Scotus died.
  1. Four Franciscans burnt for heresy at Marseilles.
  1. Occam died.
  2. The Great Plague, the Black Death.
  1. The Jacquerie in France.
  1. In China the Mongol (Yuan) Dynasty fell, and was succeeded by the Ming Dynasty (to 1644).
  1. Timurlane assumed the title of Great Khan.
  1. Pope Gregory XI returned to Rome. The Great Schism. Urban VI in Rome, Clement VII at Avignon.
  1. Peasant revolt in England. Wat Tyler murdered in the presence of King Richard II.
  1. Wycliffe died.
  1. Huss preached Wycliffism at Prague.
  1. Death of Timurlane.
The Council of Constance. Huss burnt (1415).
  1. The Great Schism ended, Martin V Pope.
  1. The Hussites revolted. Martin V preached a crusade against them.
  1. The Catholic Crusaders dissolved before the Hussites at Domazlice. The Council of Basle met.
  1. The Hussites came to terms with the church.
  1. Council of Basle created a fresh schism in the church.
  1. Discovery of Cape Verde by the Portuguese.
  2. First printed books (Coster in Haarlem).
  1. End of the Council of Basle.
  1. Ottoman Turks under Muhammad II took Constantinople.
  1. Ivan III, Grand-duke of Moscow, threw off the Mongol allegiance.
  2. Death of the Sultan Muhammad II while preparing for the conquest of Italy. Bayazid II Turkish Sultan (to 1512).
  1. Diaz rounded the Cape of Good Hope.
  1. Columbus crossed the Atlantic to America. Rodrigo Borgia, Alexander VI, Pope (to 1503).
  2. Maximilian I became Emperor.
  1. Vasco da Gama sailed round the Cape to India.
  2. Switzerland became an independent republic.
  3. Charles V born.
  1. Henry VIII King of England.
  1. Selim Sultan (to 1520). He bought the title of Caliph. Fall of Soderini (and Machiavelli) in Florence.
  2. Leo X Pope.
  1. Francis I King of France.
  1. Selim annexed Egypt. Luther propounded his theses at Wittenberg.
  1. Leonardo da Vinci died. Magellan’s expedition started to sail round the world. Cortez entered Mexico city.
  2. Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultan (to 1566), who ruled from Bagdad to Hungary. Charles V Emperor.
  3. Luther at the Diet of Worms. Loyola wounded at Pampeluna.
  1. Baber won the battle of Panipat, captured Delhi, and founded the Mogul Empire.
  1. The German troops in Italy, under the Constable of Bourbon, took and pillaged Rome.
  1. Suleiman besieged Vienna,
  2. Pizarro invaded Peru. Charles V crowned, by the Pope. Henry VIII began his quarrel with the Papacy.
  1. The Anabaptists seized Munster.
  1. Fall of the Anabaptist rule in Munster.
  1. The Company of Jesus founded.
  1. Copernicus died.
  1. The Council of Trent (to 1563) assembled to put the church
    in order.
  2. Martin Luther died.
  3. Ivan IV (the Terrible) took the title of Tsar of Russia. Francis I died.
  1. First Jesuit missions arrived in South America.
  1. Treaty of Passau. Temporary pacification of Germany.
  1. Charles V abdicated. Akbar Great Mogul (to 1005). Ignatius of Loyola died.
  1. Death of Charles V.
  1. End of the Council of Trent and the reform of the Catholic Church.
  2. Galileo born.
  1. Suleiman the Magnificent died.
  2. Revolt of the Netherlands.
  3. Execution of Counts Egmont and Horn.
  1. Kepler born.
  1. Siege of Alkmaar.
  1. Harvey born.
  1. Sir Walter Raleigh’s expedition to Virginia.
  1. Tycho Brahe died.
  1. James I King of England and Scotland. Dr. Gilbert died.
  1. Jehangir Great Mogul.
  2. Virginia Company founded.
  1. Holland independent.
  1. Thirty Years’ War began.
  1. Mayflower expedition founded New Plymouth. First negro slaves landed at Jamestown (Va.).
  1. Charles I of England.
  2. Sir Francis Bacon (Lord Verulam) died.
  1. Shah Jehan Great Mogul. The English Petition of Right.
  2. Charles I of England began his eleven years of rule without a parliament.
  3. Kepler died.
  1. Leeuwenhoek born. Gustavus Adolphus killed at the Battle of Lutzen.
  1. Wallenstein murdered.
  1. Japan closed to Europeans (until 1865).
  1. Charles I of England summoned the Long Parliament.
  2. Massacre of the English in Ireland.
  3. Galileo died. Newton born.
  4. Louis XIV began his reign of seventy-two years.
  5. The Manchus ended the Ming dynasty.
  6. Swine pens in the inner town of Leipzig pulled down.
  1. Treaty of Westphalia. Thereby Holland and Switzerland were recognized as free republics and Prussia became important. The treaty gave a complete victory neither to the Imperial Crown nor to the Princes. War of the Fronde; it ended in the complete victory of the French crown.
  2. Execution of Charles I of England.
  1. Aurungzeb Great Mogul. Cromwell died.
  1. Charles II of England.
  1. New Amsterdam finally became British by treaty and was renamed New York.
  1. The last Turkish attack on Vienna defeated by John III of Poland.
  1. The British Revolution. Flight of James II. William and Mary began to reign.
  2. Peter the Great of Russia. (To 1725.)
  3. Battle of the Boyne in Ireland.
  1. Voltaire born.
  1. Frederick I first King of Prussia.
  1. John Locke, the father of modern democratic theory, died.
  1. Death of Aurungzeb. The empire of the Great Mogul disintegrated.
  1. Frederick the Great of Prussia born.
  2. George I of Britain.
  3. Louis XV of France.
  1. Newton died. George II of Britain.
  1. Oglethorpe founded Georgia.
  1. Nadir Shah raided India. (The beginning of twenty years of raiding and disorder in India.)
  1. Maria-Theresa began to reign. (Being a woman, she could not be empress. Her husband, Francis I, was emperor until  his death in 1765, when her son, Joseph II, succeeded him.) Accession of Frederick the Great, King of Prussia.
  2. The Empress Elizabeth of Russia began to reign.
Britain and France struggled for America and India. France in alliance with Austria and Russia against Prussia and Britain (1756-63); the Seven Years’ War.
  1. Battle of Plassey.
  1. The British general, Wolfe, took Quebec.
  2. George III of Britain.
  1. The Empress Elizabeth of Russia died. Murder of the Tsar Paul, and accession of Catherine the Great of Russia (to 1796).
  2. Peace of Paris; Canada ceded to Britain. British dominant in India.
  3. Battle of Buxar.
  1. Napoleon Bonaparte born.
  1. Louis XVI began his reign. Suicide of Clive. The American revolutionary drama began.
  2. Battle of Lexington.
  3. Declaration of Independence by the United States of America.
      1. Rousseau, the creator of modern democratic sentiment, died.
  1. End of the reign of Maria-Theresa. The Emperor Joseph. (1765 to 1790) succeeded her in the hereditary Habsburg dominions.
  1. Treaty of Peace between Britain and the new United States of America. Quaco set free in Massachusetts.
  1. The Constitutional Convention of Philadelphia set, up the Federal Government of the United States. France discovered to be bankrupt. The Assembly of the Notables.
  2. First Federal Congress of the United States at New York.
  3. The French States-General assembled. Storming of the Bastille.
  1. The Jacobin Revolution. Flight to Varennes.
  2. France declared war on Austria. Prussia declared war on France. Battle of Valmy. France became a republic.
  3. Louis XVI beheaded.
  4. Execution of Robespierre and end of the Jacobin republic. Rule of the Convention.
  5. The Directory. Bonaparte suppressed a revolt and went to Italy as commander-in-chief.
  1. By the Peace of Campo Formio, Bonaparte destroyed the Republic of Venice.
  2. Bonaparte went to Egypt. Battle of the Nile.
  3. Bonaparte returned. He became First Consul with enormous powers.
  4. Legislative union of Ireland and England enacted January 1st, 1801. Napoleon’s campaign against Austria. Battles of Marengo (in Italy) and Hohenlinden (Moreau’s victory).
  5. Preliminaries of peace between France, England, and Austria signed.
  1. Bonaparte occupied Switzerland, and so precipitated war.
  2. Bonaparte became Emperor. Francis II took the title of Emperor of Austria in 1805, and in 1806 he dropped the title of Holy Roman Emperor. So the “Holy Roman Empire” came to an end.
  3. Battle of Trafalgar. Battles of Ulm and Austerlitz.
  4. Prussia overthrown at Jena.
  5. Battles of Eylau and Friedland and Treaty of Tilsit.
  6. Napoleon made his brother Joseph King of Spain.
  1. Spanish America became republican.
  2. Alexander withdrew from the “Continental System”.
  3. Napoleon’s retreat from Moscow.
  1. Abdication of Napoleon. Louis XVIII.
  2. The Waterloo campaign. The Treaty of Vienna.
  1. The First Factory Act passed through the efforts of Robert Owen.
  1. The Greek revolt.
  1. Charles X of France.
  2. Nicholas I of Russia. First railway, Stockton to Darlington.
  1. Battle of Navarino.
  1. Greece independent.
  2. A year of disturbance. Louis Philippe ousted Charles X. Belgium broke away from Holland. Leopold of Saxe- Coburg-Gotha became king of this new country, Belgium. Russian Poland revolted ineffectually.
  1. The First Reform Bill in Britain restored the democratic character of the British Parliament.
  1. The word socialism first used.
  1. Queen Victoria.
  1. Queen Victoria married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg- Gotha.
  1. Another year of disturbance. Republics in France and Rome. The Pan-slavic conference at Prague. All Germany united in a parliament at Frankfort. German unity destroyed by the King of Prussia.
  1. The Great Exhibition Of London.
  2. Napoleon III Emperor of the French.
  1. Perry (second expedition) landed in Japan. Nicholas I occupied the Danubian provinces of Turkey.
Crimean War.
  1. Alexander II of Russia.
  2. The Indian Mutiny.
  1. Robert Owen died.
  1. Franco-Austrian war. Battles of Magenta and Solferino.
  1. Victor Emmanuel First King of Italy. Abraham Lincoln became President, U.S.A. The American Civil War began.
  1. British bombarded a Japanese town.
  2. Maximilian became Emperor of Mexico.
  3. Surrender of Appomattox Court House. Japan opened to the world.
  4. Prussia and Italy attacked Austria (and the south German states in alliance with her). Battle of Sadowa.
  5. The Emperor Maximilian shot.
  1. Napoleon III declared war against Prussia.
  2. Paris surrendered (January). The King of Prussia became William I, “German Emperor”. The Hohenzollern Peace of Frankfort.
  1. The “Bulgarian atrocities”.
  1. Russo-Turkish War. Treaty of San Stefano, Queen Victoria became Empress of India.
  2. The Treaty of Berlin. The Armed Peace of forty-six years began in western Europe.
  1. The Battle of Majuba Hill. The Transvaal free.
  1. Britain occupied Egypt.
  1. Gladstone’s first Irish Home Rule Bill.
  1. Frederick II (March), William II (June), German Emperors.
  1. Bismarck dismissed. Heligoland ceded to Germany by Lord Salisbury.
Japanese war with China.
  1. “Unionist” (Imperialist) government in Britain.
  2. Battle of Adowa.
  1. The Fashoda quarrel between France and Britain. Germany acquired Kiau-Chau.
  2. The war in South Africa began (Boer war).
  3. The Boxer risings in China. Siege of the Legations at Peking.
  1. The British invaded Tibet.
Russo-Japanese war.
  1. The “Unionist” (Imperialist) party in Great Britain defeated by the Liberals upon the question of tariffs.
  2. The Confederation of South Africa established.
  3. Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    1. Bleriot flew in an aeroplane from France to England.
  1. Italy made war on Turkey and seized Tripoli.
  2. China became a republic.
  3. The Balkan league, made war on Turkey. Bloodshed at Londonderry in Ireland caused by “Unionist” gun running.
  4. The Great War in Europe began (for which see special time chart, pp. 1052-53).
  1. The two Russian revolutions. Establishment of the Bolshevik regime in Russia.
The Clemenceau Peace of Versailles.
  1. First meeting of the League of Nations, from which Germany, Austria, Russia, and Turkey were excluded, and at which the United States was not represented.

And here our List of Events breaks off with a note of interrogation.

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